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Old 08-18-2011, 10:55 PM   #1
Indistinct0
Default Cerberus comes to life

**WARNING**

Graphic content, not for the light of heart

**Warning**

Continue at your own risk
-------------------------------------

In the 1950s, at the height of the cold war, Stalin turned his attention to medicine as a way to advance technology and put the USSR ahead of the west.



To this end, just outside Moscow, Stalin established secret medical laboratories to explore and develop new concepts. Scientists were encourage to experiment freely in the search for the secrets to prolonging life. Many of these tests were carried out on animals. Organs were removed from the corpses and kept alive with machines. Dogs were put to death and subsequently brought back to life.


Vladimir Demikhov, a veteran of the Red Army hospitals in World War 2, believed it was possible to transplant organs like the heart and lungs in human beings. Even in the science-mad 50s this sounded far-fetched. However, Demikhov proved it could be done, by transplanting the heart and lungs from one dog to another. His experiments laid the ground-work for future medical success in humans, but his work never received the recognition it deserved. Demikhov was preparing plans for a human heart transplant, 16 years before the first one was actually achieved.
One night in 1954, Demikhov undertook an experiment that stunned the world. He took two dogs, one fully grown, the other a puppy. He, and his team of surgeons, operated on them through the night. The following morning Demikhov unveiled his achievement. It was a creature straight out of science-fiction.



He had stitched the head and upper-body of the puppy onto the neck of the larger dog, connecting their blood-vessels and windpipes. Soviet propaganda trumpeted his achievement. In America, this caught the attention of an ambitious young scientist: Robert White.
For an America in the grip of cold-war paranoia, the prospect of Russian two-headed dogs was too much to ignore. The United States would soon begin it's own head-transplant programme.
Robert White was born in Minnesota, in 1926. Like Demikhov, he was a veteran of World War 2. After the war, White attended Harvard Medical School, where he studied to be a brain surgeon.
In 1960, the US Government, eager to stay ahead of the Russians in all aspects of medical science, helped White establish a specialist laboratory at the County Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio. Here he set about creating a world-leading brain research centre.


By day, White operated on patients with all kinds of brain injuries and illnesses. His surgical skills were renowned. But, as a scientist, it was the mysteries of the brain he wanted to unlock. His ambition was to be the first person, in the world, to isolate the brain. To take it out of the skull, to study it, and to keep it alive throughout.
White was convinced it was possible to remove the brain from the skull and keep it alive. In 1962, he achieved a world's-first by successfully removing an animal's brain and keeping the brain alive. In 1964, he came up with a more audacious plan, to transplant the brain of one animal into the body of another and study it from there.



He removed the brain of one dog and transplanted it into the neck of a second dog. The brain was connected to the blood supply of the host animal and electrodes were put in place to monitor the brain's activity. This begged the question: "If the brain is alive, is it conscious?" It was a question White could not answer.
White's work was not unnoticed in the Soviet Union, and, unusually, there followed a number of visits by the Russians to the Ohio facility and a number of reciprocal visits by White to Russia.
One person that White was keen to meet, was tha man who had inspired him years before - Vladimir Demikhov. Demikhov had continued his work with organ transplants and had revolutionised heart surgery. However, by 1966 he had fallen foul of the authorities, who thought his methods outlandish.


Following his visits to Russia, White returned with ideas to prove a transplanted brains consciousness. He had learned of experiments carried out by the Soviets where the severed head of a dog was kept alive and displayed cognitive reactions.
Robert White decided that if he could transplant a head from one monkey to another, then it would be apparent of the brain activity represented awareness. It took him three years to plan the surgery. He knew that this would be, to some, morally offensive.
In order to keep the head alive the the blood-flow from monkey B's body had to be transfused to monkey A's head via a network of plastic tubes. The A head was brought onto the B body and the blood vessels were connected together, but the spinal cord was left, it's impossible to reconnect nerve threads once they are broken. When the surgery was complete and the monkey came out of the anaesthetic it could move it's facial muscles, it could be fed and follow movements with it's eyes. Of course, with a severed spinal cord it was paralysed from the neck down, but the operation had been a success.

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In the Soviet Ogonek, Georgi Blok describes a sensational exhibit at a recent meeting of the Moscow Surgical Society.

On the platform close to the guests of honor stood a large white dog, wagging its tail. From one side of its neck protruded the head of a small brown puppy. As the surgeons watched, the puppy's head bit the nearest white ear. The white head snarled.
The two-headed dog, no freak of nature, was the latest product of Surgeon Vladimir Petrovich Demikhov, chief of the organ-transplanting laboratory of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Dr. Demikhov, says Blok, started in a small way by replacing the hearts of dogs with artificial blood pumps. Next, he planted a second heart in a dog's chest, removing part of a lung to make room for it. The extra heart continued its own rhythm, beating independently of the original heart.



After repeating this operation many times, Dr. Demikhov could keep two-hearted dogs alive for as long as 2? months. Sometimes the original heart stopped beating first. Then the second heart carried the burden until it failed too.
Encouraged by his successes, Dr. Demikhov tried the reverse operation. He removed most of the body of a small puppy and grafted the head and forelegs to the neck of an adult dog. The big dog's heart, as Blok tells the story, pumped blood enough for both heads. When the multiple dog regained consciousness after the operation, the puppy's head woke up and yawned. The big head gave it a puzzled look and tried at first to shake it off.
The puppy's head kept its own personality. Though handicapped by having almost no body of its own, it was as playful as any other puppy. It growled and snarled with mock fierceness or licked the hand that caressed it. The host-dog was bored by all this, but soon became reconciled to the unaccountable puppy that had sprouted out of its neck. When it got thirsty, the puppy got thirsty and lapped milk eagerly. When the laboratory grew hot, both host-dog and puppy put out their tongues and panted to cool off. After six days of life together, both heads and the common body died.


Dr. Demikhov's two-headed dog, Blok points out, was not a mere stunt. It was part of a long-range attempt to learn how damaged organs can be replaced, or how their functions can be performed by mechanical substitutes.


Read more: Science: Transplanted Head - TIME


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Old 08-18-2011, 11:30 PM   #2
crot
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Default Re: Cerberus comes to life

OH god, fuck, stop with this stuff. There was a thread on this crap before.
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Old 08-19-2011, 12:04 AM   #3
Sidewinder Zulu

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Default Re: Cerberus comes to life

Interesting.
F*cking nasty and immoral as hell, but interesting to read about. Both the US and USSR did some crazy-ass sh*t during the Cold War...

And in B4 lock
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Old 08-19-2011, 01:06 AM   #4
Tim270
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Default Re: Cerberus comes to life

edit; nevermind.
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Last edited by Tim270; 08-19-2011 at 01:13 AM..
Old 08-19-2011, 04:31 AM   #5
Draakon
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Default Re: Cerberus comes to life

Wasn't there a thread about this before?


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Old 08-19-2011, 02:35 PM   #6
Triggerfinger
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Default Re: Cerberus comes to life

I like it when people say that this (and other medical tests on animals are) is immoral but when a bear, shark or an elephant kills a human it's just having bad luck.

Yes I do know that people are intelligent and have morals but we have to move on, nobody says anything about ten-thousands of animals getting slaughtered because of some flu.

And btw; I don't think this is real, I also had a link to another simillar secret operation on dogs in the 1930's where they chopped of a dogs head, put two tubes in the arteries and pumped blood into the head, the dog was back "alive".

If there are no American/European/other country than the USSR claiming that this had happen and that there were witnesses there's a small chance that it succeeded/really happened.

My two cents.
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Old 08-19-2011, 06:41 PM   #7
Ts4EVER
Default Re: Cerberus comes to life

Reminds me of this:

Metallica All Nightmare Long (Official Music Video) - YouTube


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Old 08-19-2011, 06:50 PM   #8
Zimmer
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Default Re: Cerberus comes to life

Quote:
Originally Posted by Triggerfinger View Post
I like it when people say that this (and other medical tests on animals are) is immoral but when a bear, shark or an elephant kills a human it's just having bad luck.

Yes I do know that people are intelligent and have morals but we have to move on, nobody says anything about ten-thousands of animals getting slaughtered because of some flu.

And btw; I don't think this is real, I also had a link to another simillar secret operation on dogs in the 1930's where they chopped of a dogs head, put two tubes in the arteries and pumped blood into the head, the dog was back "alive".

If there are no American/European/other country than the USSR claiming that this had happen and that there were witnesses there's a small chance that it succeeded/really happened.

My two cents.
IT has alittle to do with the close ties to humans and dogs. I worked a year in a k9 unit in my conscription year and in the summer I was in France and everytime I went past a beggar with a dog, I was mostly concerned about the dog not the person, I know fucked up, but still, for me I have never experienced such a trust like the dogs give you when you get to know them. I mean some of the dogs where both big powerfull and capable to fuck you pretty bad up, but I never felt unsafe with the dogs even with one of the wildest one even though I got bitten by some of the dogs even tthe one I had as a partner you never felt unsafe. I believe if I had seen mouses with such experiments I would have felt awkward and felt alittle sorry, but I got enraged over these pictures with the dogs.

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I found this sentence quite funny and since this is a war game forum I will put it here. No offense to the french just a good laugh.
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Old 08-20-2011, 07:49 AM   #9
[R-MOD]Jigsaw
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Default Re: Cerberus comes to life

I really cannot understand how you can think this might be appropriate for these forums, despite the warnings.

Locked.


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